Helps record intruments with more audio depth condenser mikes have more proximity effect than dynamic mikes

A professional audio setup lets you record and produce music

To get it right, you'll need to know how to buy the right components

The components of a professional audio set up
How to Buy An Audio Mixer

* Signal paths: more channels mean more instruments.

* Home studio: 2-channel mixer; professional audio,16 or more channels.

* Get more I/O slots than the number of studio components you plan to use.

* Some speakers require mixers to power them.

Input Output

* Unless you use separate effects units, in-built effects are useful

* Built-in effects mean your overall setup is portable

* On a live setup, portability and ruggedness become factors

Using Live?
How to buy a Microphone
The types of Microphones

* Dynamic mikes: reliable, versatile function.

* Condensers: better quality, but require power.

* Ribbon mikes: better reproduction of high frequencies.

* Monodirectional mikes: sound from one direction; handy for live performers.

* Bidirectional mikes: pick sound from east & west, ignore north & south.

* Omnidirectional mikes: sound from all direction.

Direction matters
Unidirectional Mikes

* Classified into cardioid, hyper-cardioid, and super-cardioid.

* The illustration depicts the 'zones' from where they each pick up sound.

* Frequency range of a mike dictates its purpose.

* 80Hz to 15Hz for voices; less than 30Hz for bass drums.

Frequency Responses
Proximity Effect

* Helps record intruments with more audio depth.

* Condenser mikes have more proximity effect than dynamic mikes.

How to Buy Studio Monitors & Subwoofers

* A range of 50Hz to 20kHz is adequate.

* More Important: the monitor needs to reproduce these frequencies without any distortion/coloring.

Frequency Range, DIstortion
Listening configuration

* Near field monitors: listen to sounds up close.

* Far and mid-field monitors: sound bounces off the walls in small studios.

* Powered (active) studio monitors have in-built amplifiers.

* Passive monitors need amplifiers; offer flexibility in choice of amp.

Active Vs. Passive
How to buy cables
Common cable types

* Instrument cables connect instruments to preamps. carry a weak signal.

* Mike cables have XLR connectors; male on one end and female at other.

* Speaker cables are unbalanced and high-voltage; connectors include quarter-inch, MDP, and binding post.

* Unbalanced cables; used as instrument and patch cables (connecting nearby components); avoid long lengths to avoid interference.

* Balanced cables; used for mikes and DI boxes.

Balanced Vs. Unbalanced
Analog Connectors

* TS and TRS cables; come in 1/8 and 1/4 inch configurations; TS also called 'guitar cables', TRS can handle simultaneous input & output.

* XLR connectors; commonly used on microphone cables.

* RCA cables; connect stereos or other consumer electronics into the PA.

* Banana Plugs: connect audio wires to amps and speakers; connections use locking screws to allow easy fixes.

* MIDI cables: don't transmit actually audio, but signal the note, velocity of attack, and how long the note is held. Can communicte controls to software.

* USB cables; have USB connector on one end, device specific connector on ther end

* Firewire Cables: higher transfer rates

* Thunderbolt: for connectivity to apple devices.

Digital connectors