Helps record intruments with more audio depth condenser mikes have more proximity effect than dynamic mikes

A professional audio setup lets you record and produce music

To get it right, you'll need to know how to buy the right components

The components of a professional audio set up
How to Buy An Audio Mixer
Channels







* Signal paths: more channels mean more instruments.

* Home studio: 2-channel mixer; professional audio,16 or more channels.







* Get more I/O slots than the number of studio components you plan to use.

* Some speakers require mixers to power them.

Input Output
Effects







* Unless you use separate effects units, in-built effects are useful


* Built-in effects mean your overall setup is portable







* On a live setup, portability and ruggedness become factors

Using Live?
How to buy a Microphone
The types of Microphones






* Dynamic mikes: reliable, versatile function.


* Condensers: better quality, but require power.


* Ribbon mikes: better reproduction of high frequencies.





* Monodirectional mikes: sound from one direction; handy for live performers.


* Bidirectional mikes: pick sound from east & west, ignore north & south.


* Omnidirectional mikes: sound from all direction.

Direction matters
Unidirectional Mikes






* Classified into cardioid, hyper-cardioid, and super-cardioid.


* The illustration depicts the 'zones' from where they each pick up sound.






* Frequency range of a mike dictates its purpose.


* 80Hz to 15Hz for voices; less than 30Hz for bass drums.

Frequency Responses
Proximity Effect






* Helps record intruments with more audio depth.


* Condenser mikes have more proximity effect than dynamic mikes.

How to Buy Studio Monitors & Subwoofers






* A range of 50Hz to 20kHz is adequate.


* More Important: the monitor needs to reproduce these frequencies without any distortion/coloring.

Frequency Range, DIstortion
Listening configuration






* Near field monitors: listen to sounds up close.


* Far and mid-field monitors: sound bounces off the walls in small studios.






* Powered (active) studio monitors have in-built amplifiers.


* Passive monitors need amplifiers; offer flexibility in choice of amp.

Active Vs. Passive
How to buy cables
Common cable types




* Instrument cables connect instruments to preamps. carry a weak signal.


* Mike cables have XLR connectors; male on one end and female at other.


* Speaker cables are unbalanced and high-voltage; connectors include quarter-inch, MDP, and binding post.





* Unbalanced cables; used as instrument and patch cables (connecting nearby components); avoid long lengths to avoid interference.


* Balanced cables; used for mikes and DI boxes.

Balanced Vs. Unbalanced
Analog Connectors



* TS and TRS cables; come in 1/8 and 1/4 inch configurations; TS also called 'guitar cables', TRS can handle simultaneous input & output.


* XLR connectors; commonly used on microphone cables.


* RCA cables; connect stereos or other consumer electronics into the PA.


* Banana Plugs: connect audio wires to amps and speakers; connections use locking screws to allow easy fixes.



* MIDI cables: don't transmit actually audio, but signal the note, velocity of attack, and how long the note is held. Can communicte controls to software.


* USB cables; have USB connector on one end, device specific connector on ther end


* Firewire Cables: higher transfer rates


* Thunderbolt: for connectivity to apple devices.

Digital connectors